Benin was the seat of one of the great medieval African kingdoms called
Dahomey. Europeans began arriving in the area in the 18th century, as the
kingdom of Dahomey was expanding its territory. The Portuguese, the French,
and the Dutch established trading posts along the coast (Porto-Novo, Ouidah,
Cotonou), and traded weapons for slaves. Slave trade ended in 1848. Then,
the French signed treaties with Kings of Abomey (Guézo, Toffa, Glčlč)
to establish French protectorates in the main cities and ports. However,
King Behanzin fought the French influence which cost him deportation to
Martinique. As of 1900, the territory became a French colony ruled by a
French Governor. Expansion continued to the North (kingdoms of Parakou,
Nikki, Kandi), up to the border with former Upper Volta. On December 4,
1958, it became the République du Dahomey, self-governing within
the French community, and on August 1, 1960, the Republic of Benin gained
full independence from France.
Between 1960 and 1972, a succession of military coups brought about
many changes of government. The last of these brought to power Major Mathieu
Kérékou as the head of a regime professing strict Marxist-Leninist
principles. The Revolutionary Party of the People of Benin (PRPB) remained
in complete power until the beginning of the 1990s. Kérékou,
encouraged by France and other democratic powers, convened a national conference
that introduced a new democratic constitution and held presidential and
legislative elections. Kérékou's principal opponent at the
presidential poll, and the ultimate victor, was Prime Minister Nicéphore
Soglo. Supporters of Soglo also secured a majority in the National Assembly.
Benin was thus the first African country to effect successfully the
transition from dictatorship to a pluralistic political system. In the
second round of National Assembly elections held in March 1995, Soglo's
political vehicle, the Parti de la Renaissance du Benin, was the largest
single party but lacked an overall majority. The success of a party formed
by supporters of ex-president Kérékou, who had officially
retired from active politics, encouraged him to stand successfully at both
the 1996 and 2001 presidential elections.
During the 2001 elections, however, alleged irregularities and dubious
practices led to a boycott of the run-off poll by the main opposition candidates.
The four top-ranking contenders following the first round presidential
elections were Mathieu Kerekou (incumbent) 45.4%, Nicephore Soglo (former
president) 27.1%, Adrien Houngbedji (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%,
and Bruno Amoussou (Minister of State) 8.6%. The second round balloting,
originally scheduled for March 18, 2001, was postponed for days because
both Soglo and Houngbedji withdrew, alleging electoral fraud. This left
Kerekou to run against his own Minister of State, Amoussou, in what was
termed a "friendly match."
In December 2002, Benin held its first municipal elections since before
the institution of Marxism-Leninism. The process was smooth with the significant
exception of the 12th district council for Cotonou, the contest that would
ultimately determine who would be selected for the mayoralty of the capital
city. That vote was marred by irregularities, and the electoral commission
was forced to repeat that single election. Nicephore Soglo's Renaisance
du Benin (RB) party won the new vote, paving the way for the former president
to be elected Mayor of Cotonou by the new city council in February 2002.
National Assembly elections took place in March 2003 and were generally
considered to be free and fair. Although there were some irregularities,
these were not significant and did not greatly disrupt the proceedings
or the results. These elections resulted in a loss of seats by RB--the
primary opposition party.