The earliest inhabitants of Cameroon were probably the Bakas (Pygmies).
They still inhabit the forests of the south and east provinces. Bantu speakers
originating in the Cameroonian highlands were among the first groups to
move out before other invaders. During the late 1770s and early 1800s,
the Fulani, a pastoral Islamic people of the western Sahel, conquered most
of what is now northern Cameroon, subjugating or displacing its largely
Although the Portuguese arrived on Cameroon's coast in the 1500s, malaria
prevented significant European settlement and conquest of the interior
until the late 1870s, when large supplies of the malaria suppressant, quinine,
became available. The early European presence in Cameroon was primarily
devoted to coastal trade and the acquisition of slaves. The northern part
of Cameroon was an important part of the Muslim slave trade network. The
slave trade was largely suppressed by the mid-l9th century. Christian missions
established a presence in the late 19th century and continue to play a
role in Cameroonian life.
Beginning in 1884, all of present-day Cameroon and parts of several
of its neighbors became the German colony of Kamerun, with a capital first
at Buea and later at Yaounde. After World War I, this colony was partitioned
between Britain and France under a June 28, 1919 League of Nations mandate.
France gained the larger geographical share, transferred outlying regions
to neighboring French colonies, and ruled the rest from Yaounde. Britain's
territory -- a strip bordering Nigeria from the sea to Lake Chad, with
an equal population -- was ruled from Lagos.
In 1955, the outlawed Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (UPC), based
largely among the Bamileke and Bassa ethnic groups, began an armed struggle
for independence in French Cameroon. This rebellion continued, with diminishing
intensity, even after independence. Estimates of death from this conflict
vary from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands.
French Cameroon achieved independence in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon.
The following year the largely Muslim northern two-thirds of British Cameroon
voted to join Nigeria; the largely Christian southern third voted to join
with the Republic of Cameroon to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.
The formerly French and British regions each maintained substantial autonomy.
Ahmadou Ahidjo, a French-educated Fulani, was chosen president of the federation
in 1961. Ahidjo, relying on a pervasive internal security apparatus, outlawed
political parties but his own in 1966. He successfully suppressed the UPC
rebellion, capturing the last important rebel leader in 1970. In 1972,
a new constitution replaced the federation with a unitary state.
Ahidjo resigned as president in 1982 and was constitutionally succeeded
by his Prime Minister, Paul Biya, a career official from the Bulu-Beti
ethnic group. Ahidjo later regretted his choice of successors, but his
supporters failed to overthrow Biya in a 1984 coup. Biya won single-candidate
elections in 1984 and 1988 and flawed multiparty elections in 1992 and
1997. His CPDM party holds a sizeable majority in the legislature -- 149
deputies out of a total of 180.