Prior to Italian colonization in 1885, what is now Eritrea had been
ruled by the various local or international powers that successively dominated
the Red Sea region. In 1896, the Italians used Eritrea as a springboard
for their disastrous attempt to conquer Ethiopia. Eritrea was placed under
British military administration after the Italian surrender in World War
II. In 1952, a UN resolution federating Eritrea with Ethiopia went into
effect. The resolution ignored Eritrean pleas for independence but guaranteed
Eritreans some democratic rights and a measure of autonomy. Almost immediately
after the federation went into effect, however, these rights began to be
abridged or violated.
In 1962, Emperor Haile Sellassie unilaterally dissolved the Eritrean
parliament and annexed the country, sparking the Eritrean fight for independence
from Ethiopia that continued after Haile Sellassie was ousted in a coup
in 1974. The new Ethiopian Government, called the Derg, was a Marxist military
junta led by strongman Mengistu Haile Miriam.
During the 1960s, the Eritrean independence struggle was led by the
Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF). In 1970, members of the group had a falling
out, and a group broke away from the ELF and formed the Eritrean People's
Liberation Front (EPLF). By the late 1970s, the EPLF had become the dominant
armed Eritrean group fighting against the Ethiopian Government, and Isaias
Afwerki had emerged as its leader. Much of the materiel used to combat
Ethiopia was captured from the Ethiopian Army.
By 1977 the EPLF was poised to drive the Ethiopians out of Eritrea.
That same year, however, a massive airlift of Soviet arms to Ethiopia enabled
the Ethiopian Army to regain the initiative and forced the EPLF to retreat
to the bush. Between 1978 and 1986, the Derg launched eight major offensives
against the independence movement--all failed. In 1988, the EPLF captured
Afabet, headquarters of the Ethiopian Army in northeastern Eritrea, prompting
the Ethiopian Army to withdraw from its garrisons in Eritrea's western
lowlands. EPLF fighters then moved into position around Keren, Eritrea's
second-largest city. Meanwhile, other dissident movements were making headway
throughout Ethiopia. At the end of the 1980s, the Soviet Union informed
Mengistu that it would not be renewing its defense and cooperation agreement.
With the withdrawal of Soviet support and supplies, the Ethiopian Army's
morale plummeted, and the EPLF--along with other Ethiopian rebel forces--began
to advance on Ethiopian positions.
The United States played a facilitative role in the peace talks in Washington
during the months leading up to the May 1991 fall of the Mengistu regime.
In mid-May, Mengistu resigned as head of the Ethiopian Government and went
into exile in Zimbabwe, leaving a caretaker government in Addis Ababa.
Later that month, the United States chaired talks in London to formalize
the end of the war. These talks were attended by the four major combatant
groups, including the EPLF.
Having defeated the Ethiopian forces in Eritrea, EPLF troops took control
of their homeland. In May 1991, the EPLF established the Provisional Government
of Eritrea (PGE) to administer Eritrean affairs until a referendum could
be held on independence and a permanent government established. EPLF leader
Isaias became the head of the PGE, and the EPLF Central Committee served
as its legislative body.
A high-level U.S. delegation was present in Addis Ababa for the July
1-5, 1991 conference that established a transitional government in Ethiopia.
The EPLF attended the July conference as an observer and held talks with
the new transitional government regarding Eritrea's relationship to Ethiopia.
The outcome of those talks was an agreement in which the Ethiopians recognized
the right of the Eritreans to hold a referendum on independence.
Although some EPLF cadres at one time espoused a Marxist ideology, Soviet
support for Mengistu cooled their ardor. The fall of communist regimes
in the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc convinced them it was a
failed system. The EPLF (and later its successor, the PFDJ) expressed its
commitment to establishing a democratic form of government and a free-market
economy in Eritrea. The United States agreed to provide assistance to both
Ethiopia and Eritrea, conditional on continued progress toward democracy
and human rights.
On April 23-25, 1993, Eritreans voted overwhelmingly for independence
from Ethiopia in a UN-monitored free and fair referendum. The Eritrean
authorities declared Eritrea an independent state on April 27, and Eritrea
officially celebrated its independence on May 24, 1993.
Eritrea's Government faced formidable challenges following independence.
Beginning with no constitution, no judicial system, and an education system
in shambles, it was required to build institutions of government from scratch.
On May 19, 1993, the PGE issued a proclamation regarding the reorganization
of the government. The government was reorganized, and after a national,
freely contested election, the National Assembly, which chose Isaias as
President of the PGE, was expanded to include both EPLF and non-EPLF members.
The EPLF established itself as a political party, the People's Front for
Democracy and Justice (PFDJ). The PGE declared that during a 4-year transition
period, and sooner if possible, it would draft and ratify a constitution,
prepare a law on political parties, prepare a press law, and carry out
elections for a constitutional government.
In March 1994, the PGE created a constitutional commission charged with
drafting a constitution flexible enough to meet the current needs of a
population suffering from 30 years of civil war as well as those of the
future, when prospective stability and prosperity would change the political
landscape. Commission members traveled throughout the country and to Eritrean
communities abroad holding meetings to explain constitutional options to
the people and to solicit their input. A new constitution was ratified
in 1997 but has not been implemented, and general elections have not been