The people of India have had a continuous civilization since 2500 B.C.,
when the inhabitants of the Indus River valley developed an urban culture
based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. This civilization
declined around 1500 B.C., probably due to ecological changes.
During the second millennium B.C., pastoral, Aryan-speaking tribes migrated
from the northwest into the subcontinent. As they settled in the middle
Ganges River valley, they adapted to antecedent cultures.
The political map of ancient and medieval India was made up of myriad
kingdoms with fluctuating boundaries. In the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.,
northern India was unified under the Gupta Dynasty. During this period,
known as India's Golden Age, Hindu culture and political administration
reached new heights.
Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 500 years. In
the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established
sultanates in Delhi. In the early 16th century, descendants of Genghis
Khan swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal (Mogul) Dynasty,
which lasted for 200 years. From the 11th to the 15th centuries, southern
India was dominated by Hindu Chola and Vijayanagar Dynasties. During this
time, the two systems--the prevailing Hindu and Muslim--mingled, leaving
lasting cultural influences on each other.
The first British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat
on the northwestern coast. Later in the century, the East India Company
opened permanent trading stations at Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, each
under the protection of native rulers.
The British expanded their influence from these footholds until, by
the 1850s, they controlled most of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
In 1857, a rebellion in north India led by mutinous Indian soldiers caused
the British Parliament to transfer all political power from the East India
Company to the Crown. Great Britain began administering most of India directly
while controlling the rest through treaties with local rulers.
In the late 1800s, the first steps were taken toward self-government
in British India with the appointment of Indian councilors to advise the
British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian
members; the British subsequently widened participation in legislative
councils. Beginning in 1920, Indian leader Mohandas K. Gandhi transformed
the Indian National Congress political party into a mass movement to campaign
against British colonial rule. The party used both parliamentary and nonviolent
resistance and noncooperation to achieve independence.
On August 15, 1947, India became a dominion within the Commonwealth,
with Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister. Enmity between Hindus and Muslims
led the British to partition British India, creating East and West Pakistan,
where there were Muslim majorities. India became a republic within the
Commonwealth after promulgating its Constitution on January 26, 1950.
After independence, the Congress Party, the party of Mahatma Gandhi
and Jawaharlal Nehru, ruled India under the influence first of Nehru and
then his daughter and grandson, with the exception of two brief periods
in the 1970s and 1980s.
Prime Minister Nehru governed the nation until his death in 1964. He
was succeeded by Lal Bahadur Shastri, who also died in office. In 1966,
power passed to Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister from 1966
to 1977. In 1975, beset with deepening political and economic problems,
Mrs. Gandhi declared a state of emergency and suspended many civil liberties.
Seeking a mandate at the polls for her policies, she called for elections
in 1977, only to be defeated by Moraji Desai, who headed the Janata Party,
an amalgam of five opposition parties.
In 1979, Desai's Government crumbled. Charan Singh formed an interim
government, which was followed by Mrs. Gandhi's return to power in January
1980. On October 31, 1984, Mrs. Gandhi was assassinated, and her son, Rajiv,
was chosen by the Congress (I)--for "Indira"--Party to take her place.
His Congress government was plagued with allegations of corruption resulting
in an early call for national elections in 1989.
In the 1989 elections Rajiv Gandhi and Congress won more seats than
any other single party, but he was unable to form a government with a clear
majority. The Janata Dal, a union of opposition parties, then joined with
the Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) on the right and the
communists on the left to form the government. This loose coalition collapsed
in November 1990, and Janata Dal, supported by the Congress (I), came to
power for a short period, with Chandra Shekhar as Prime Minister. That
alliance also collapsed, resulting in national elections in June 1991.
On May 27, 1991, while campaigning in Tamil Nadu on behalf of Congress
(I), Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated, apparently by Tamil extremists from
Sri Lanka. In the elections, Congress (I) won 213 parliamentary seats and
returned to power at the head of a coalition, under the leadership of P.V.
Narasimha Rao. This Congress-led government, which served a full 5-year
term, initiated a gradual process of economic liberalization and reform,
which opened the Indian economy to global trade and investment. India's
domestic politics also took new shape, as the nationalist appeal of the
Congress Party gave way to traditional alignments by caste, creed, and
ethnicity leading to the founding of a plethora of small, regionally based
The final months of the Rao-led government in the spring of 1996 were
marred by several major political corruption scandals, which contributed
to the worst electoral performance by the Congress Party in its history.
The Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) emerged from the May
1996 national elections as the single-largest party in the Lok Sabha but
without a parliamentary majority. Under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee,
the subsequent BJP coalition lasted only 13 days. With all political parties
wishing to avoid another round of elections, a 14-party coalition led by
the Janata Dal formed a government known as the United Front, under the
former Chief Minister of Karnataka, H.D. Deve Gowda. His government collapsed
after less than a year, when the Congress Party withdrew his support in
March 1997. Inder Kumar Gujral replaced Deve Gowda as the consensus choice
for Prime Minister at the head of a 16-party United Front coalition.
In November 1997, the Congress Party again withdrew support from the
United Front. In new elections in February 1998, the BJP won the largest
number of seats in Parliament--182--but fell far short of a majority. On
March 20, 1998, the President inaugurated a BJP-led coalition government
with Vajpayee again serving as Prime Minister. On May 11 and 13, 1998,
this government conducted a series of underground nuclear tests, forcing
U.S. President Clinton to impose economic sanctions on India pursuant to
the 1994 Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act.
In April 1999, the BJP-led coalition government fell apart, leading
to fresh elections in September. The National Democratic Alliance--a new
coalition led by the BJP--gained a majority to form the government with
Vajpayee as Prime Minister in October 1999.
The Kargil conflict in 1999 and an attack on the Indian Parliament in
December 2001 led to increased tensions with Pakistan. Hindu nationalists
have long agitated to build a temple on a disputed site in Ayodhya. In
February 2002, a mob of Muslims attacked a train carrying Hindu volunteers
returning from Ayodhya to the state of Gujarat, and 57 were burnt alive.
Over 900 people were killed and 100,000 left homeless in the resulting
anti-Muslim riots throughout the state. This led to accusations that the
state government had not done enough to contain the riots, or arrest and
prosecute the rioters.
The ruling BJP coalition was defeated in a five-stage election held
in April and May of 2004, and a Congress-led coalition took power on May
India and Pakistan have been locked in a tense rivalry since the partition
of the subcontinent upon achieving independence from Great Britain in 1947.
The principal source of contention has been Kashmir, whose Hindu Maharaja
at that time chose to join India, although a majority of his subjects were
Muslim. India maintains that his decision and the subsequent elections
in Kashmir have made it an integral part of India. This dispute triggered
wars between the two countries in 1947 and 1965.
In December 1971, following a political crisis in what was then East
Pakistan and the flight of millions of Bengali refugees to India, Pakistan
and India again went to war. The brief conflict left the situation largely
unchanged in the west, where the two armies reached an impasse, but a decisive
Indian victory in the east resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.
Since the 1971 war, Pakistan and India have made only slow progress
toward normalization of relations. In July 1972, Indian Prime Minister
Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto met in the Indian
hill station of Simla. They signed an agreement by which India would return
all personnel and captured territory in the west and the two countries
would "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations."
Diplomatic and trade relations were re-established in 1976.
After the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, new strains appeared
in India-Pakistan relations; Pakistan supported the Afghan resistance,
while India implicitly supported Soviet occupation. In the following 8
years, India voiced increasing concern over Pakistani arms purchases, U.S.
military aid to Pakistan, and Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. In an
effort to curtail tensions, the two countries formed a joint commission.
In December 1988, Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi and Benazir Bhutto concluded
a pact not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. Agreements on cultural
exchanges and civil aviation also were initiated.
In 1997, high-level Indo-Pakistani talks resumed after a 3-year pause.
The Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan met twice, and the foreign secretaries
conducted three rounds of talks. In June 1997 at Lahore, the foreign secretaries
identified eight "outstanding issues" around which continuing talks would
be focused. The dispute over the status of Jammu and Kashmir, an issue
since partition, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue. India
maintains that the entire former princely state is an integral part of
the Indian union, while Pakistan insists that UN resolutions calling for
self-determination of the people of the state must be taken into account.
In September 1997, the talks broke down over the structure of how to
deal with the issues of Kashmir and peace and security. Pakistan advocated
that separate working groups treat each issue. India responded that the
two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis. In
May 1998 India, and then Pakistan, conducted nuclear tests. Attempts to
restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the
February 1999 meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing
of three agreements. These efforts were stalled by the intrusion of Pakistani-backed
forces into Indian-held territory near Kargil in May 1999 (that nearly
turned into full scale war), and by the military coup in Pakistan that
overturned the Nawaz Sharif government in October the same year. In July
2001, Mr. Vajpayee and General Pervez Musharraf, leader of Pakistan after
the coup, met in Agra, but talks ended after 2 days without result.
After an attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001, India-Pakistan
relations cooled further as India accused Pakistanis of being involved
in the attacks. Tensions increased, fueled by killings in Jammu and Kashmir,
peaking in a troop buildup by both sides in early 2002.
Prime Minister Vajpayee’s April 18, 2003 speech in Srinagar (Kashmir)
revived bilateral efforts to normalize relations. After a series of confidence
building measures, Prime Minister Vajpayee and President Musharraf met
on the sidelines of the January 2004 SAARC summit in Islamabad and agreed
to commence a Composite Dialogue addressing outstanding issues between
India and Pakistan, including Kashmir. In November 2003, Prime Minister
Vajapyee and President Musharraf agreed to a ceasefire along the line of
control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is still holding. The UPA government
has pledged to continue the Composite Dialogue with Pakistan.