Archaeologists have demonstrated that Syria was the center of one of
the most ancient civilizations on earth. Around the excavated city of Ebla
in northern Syria, discovered in 1975, a great Semitic empire spread from
the Red Sea north to Turkey and east to Mesopotamia from 2500 to 2400 B.C.
The city of Ebla alone during that time had a population estimated at 260,000.
Scholars believe the language of Ebla to be the oldest Semitic language.
Syria was occupied successively by Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hebrews,
Arameans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Nabataeans,
Byzantines, and, in part, Crusaders before finally coming under the control
of the Ottoman Turks. Syria is significant in the history of Christianity;
Paul was converted on the road to Damascus and established the first organized
Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many
of his missionary journeys.
Damascus, settled about 2500 B.C., is one of the oldest continuously
inhabited cities in the world. It came under Muslim rule in A.D. 636. Immediately
thereafter, the city's power and prestige reached its peak, and it became
the capital of the Omayyad Empire, which extended from Spain to India from
A.D. 661 to A.D. 750, when the Abbasid caliphate was established at Baghdad,
Damascus became a provincial capital of the Mameluke Empire around 1260.
It was largely destroyed in 1400 by Tamerlane, the Mongol conqueror, who
removed many of its craftsmen to Samarkand. Rebuilt, it continued to serve
as a capital until 1516. In 1517, it fell under Ottoman rule. The Ottomans
remained for the next 400 years, except for a brief occupation by Ibrahim
Pasha of Egypt from 1832 to 1840.
In 1920, an independent Arab Kingdom of Syria was established under
King Faysal of the Hashemite family, who later became King of Iraq. However,
his rule over Syria ended after only a few months, following the clash
between his Syrian Arab forces and regular French forces at the battle
of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the League
of Nations put Syria under French mandate. With the fall of France in 1940,
Syria came under the control of the Vichy Government until the British
and Free French occupied the country in July 1941. Continuing pressure
from Syrian nationalist groups forced the French to evacuate their troops
in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government
that had been formed during the mandate.
Independence to 1970
Although rapid economic development followed the declaration of independence
of April 17, 1946, Syrian politics from independence through the late 1960s
were marked by upheaval. A series of military coups, begun in 1949, undermined
civilian rule and led to army colonel Adib Shishakli's seizure of power
in 1951. After the overthrow of President Shishakli in a 1954 coup, continued
political maneuvering supported by competing factions in the military eventually
brought Arab nationalist and socialist elements to power.
Syria's political instability during the years after the 1954 coup,
the parallelism of Syrian and Egyptian policies, and the appeal of Egyptian
President Gamal Abdel Nasser's leadership in the wake of the 1956 Suez
crisis created support in Syria for union with Egypt. On February 1, 1958,
the two countries merged to create the United Arab Republic, and all Syrian
political parties ceased overt activities.
The union was not a success, however. Following a military coup on September
28, 1961, Syria seceded, reestablishing itself as the Syrian Arab Republic.
Instability characterized the next 18 months, with various coups culminating
on March 8, 1963, in the installation by leftist Syrian Army officers of
the National Council of the Revolutionary Command (NCRC), a group of military
and civilian officials who assumed control of all executive and legislative
authority. The takeover was engineered by members of the Arab Socialist
Resurrection Party (Ba'ath Party), which had been active in Syria and other
Arab countries since the late 1940s. The new cabinet was dominated by Ba'ath
The Ba'ath takeover in Syria followed a Ba'ath coup in Iraq the previous
month. The new Syrian Government explored the possibility of federation
with Egypt and Ba'ath--controlled Iraq. An agreement was concluded in Cairo
on April 17, 1963, for a referendum on unity to be held in September 1963.
However, serious disagreements among the parties soon developed, and the
tripartite federation failed to materialize. Thereafter, the Ba'ath regimes
in Syria and Iraq began to work for bilateral unity. These plans foundered
in November 1963, when the Ba'ath regime in Iraq was overthrown. In May
1964, President Amin Hafiz of the NCRC promulgated a provisional constitution
providing for a National Council of the Revolution (NCR), an appointed
legislature composed of representatives of mass organizations--labor, peasant,
and professional unions--a presidential council, in which executive power
was vested, and a cabinet. On February 23, 1966, a group of army officers
carried out a successful, intra-party coup, imprisoned President Hafiz,
dissolved the cabinet and the NCR, abrogated the provisional constitution,
and designated a regionalist, civilian Ba'ath government. The coup leaders
described it as a "rectification" of Ba'ath Party principles. The defeat
of the Syrians and Egyptians in the June 1967 war with Israel weakened
the radical socialist regime established by the 1966 coup. Conflict developed
between a moderate military wing and a more extremist civilian wing of
the Ba'ath Party. The 1970 retreat of Syrian forces sent to aid the PLO
during the "Black September" hostilities with Jordan reflected this political
disagreement within the ruling Ba'ath leadership. On November 13, 1970,
Minister of Defense Hafiz al-Asad affected a bloodless military coup, ousting
the civilian party leadership and assuming the role of prime minister.
1970 to 2000
Upon assuming power, Hafiz al-Asad moved quickly to create an organizational
infrastructure for his government and to consolidate control. The Provisional
Regional Command of Asad's Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party nominated a 173-member
legislature, the People's Council, in which the Ba'ath Party took 87 seats.
The remaining seats were divided among "popular organizations" and other
minor parties. In March 1971, the party held its regional congress and
elected a new 21-member Regional Command headed by Asad. In the same month,
a national referendum was held to confirm Asad as President for a 7-year
term. In March 1972, to broaden the base of his government, Asad formed
the National Progressive Front, a coalition of parties led by the Ba'ath
Party, and elections were held to establish local councils in each of Syria's
14 governorates. In March 1973, a new Syrian constitution went into effect
followed shortly thereafter by parliamentary elections for the People's
Council, the first such elections since 1962.
The authoritarian regime was not without its critics, though most were
quickly dealt with. A serious challenge arose in the late 1970s, however,
from fundamentalist Sunni Muslims, who reject the basic values of the secular
Ba'ath program and object to rule by the Alawis, whom they consider heretical.
From 1976 until its suppression in 1982, the archconservative Muslim Brotherhood
led an armed insurgency against the regime. In response to an attempted
uprising by the brotherhood in February 1982, the government crushed the
fundamentalist opposition centered in the city of Hama, leveling parts
of the city with artillery fire and causing many thousands of dead and
wounded. Since then, public manifestations of anti-regime activity have
been very limited.
Syria's 1990 participation in the U.S.-led multinational coalition aligned
against Saddam Hussein marked a dramatic watershed in Syria's relations
both with other Arab states and with the West. Syria participated in the
multilateral Middle East Peace Conference in Madrid in October 1991, and
during the 1990s engaged in direct, face-to-face negotiations with Israel.
These negotiations failed, and there have been no further Syrian-Israeli
talks since President Hafiz Al-Asad's meeting with then President Bill
Clinton in Geneva in March 2000.
Hafiz Al-Asad died on June 10, 2000, after 30 years in power. Immediately
following Al-Asad's death, the Parliament amended the constitution, reducing
the mandatory minimum age of the President from 40 to 34 years old, which
allowed his son, Bashar Al-Asad legally to be eligible for nomination by
the ruling Ba'ath party. On July 10, 2000, Bashar Al-Asad was elected President
by referendum in which he ran unopposed, garnering 97.29% of the vote,
according to Syrian government statistics.