Vietnam's identity has been shaped by long-running conflicts, both internally
and with foreign forces. In 111 BC, China's Han dynasty conquered northern
Vietnam's Red River Delta and the ancestors of today's Vietnamese. Chinese
dynasties ruled Vietnam for the next 1,000 years, inculcating it with Confucian
ideas and political culture. In 939 AD, Vietnam achieved independence under
a native dynasty. After 1471, when Vietnam conquered the Champa Kingdom
in what is now central Vietnam, the Vietnamese moved gradually southward,
finally reaching the rich Mekong Delta, encountering there earlier settled
Cham and Cambodians. While Vietnam's emperors reigned ineffectually, powerful
northern and southern families fought civil wars in the 17th and 18th centuries.
French Rule and the Anti-Colonial Struggle
In 1858, the French began their conquest of Vietnam starting in the
south. They annexed all of Vietnam in 1885, but allowed Vietnam's emperors
to continue to reign, although not actually to rule. In the early 20th
century, French-educated Vietnamese intellectuals organized nationalist
and communist-nationalist anti-colonial movements.
Japan's occupation of Vietnam during World War II further stirred nationalism.
Vietnamese communists under Ho Chi Minh organized a coalition of anti-colonial
groups, the Viet Minh, though many anti-communists refused to join. After
Japan stripped the French of all power in March 1945, Ho Chi Minh announced
the independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2,
North and South Partition
France's post-World War II unwillingness to leave Vietnam led to failed
talks and an 8-year guerrilla war between the communist-led Viet Minh on
one side and the French and their anti-communist nationalist allies on
the other. Following a humiliating defeat at Dien Bien Phu in May 1954,
France and other parties, including Britain, China, the Soviet Union, and
the United States, convened in Geneva, Switzerland for peace talks. On
July 29, 1954, an Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities in Vietnam
was signed between France and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The United
States observed, but did not sign, the agreement. French colonial rule
in Vietnam ended.
The 1954 Geneva agreement provided for a cease-fire between communist
and anti-communist nationalist forces, the temporary division of Vietnam
at approximately the 17th parallel, provisional northern (communist) and
southern (noncommunist) zone governments, and the evacuation of anti-communist
Vietnamese from northern to southern Vietnam. The agreement also called
for an election to be held by July 1956 to bring the two provisional zones
under a unified government. However, the South Vietnamese Government refused
to accept this provision. On October 26, 1955, South Vietnam declared itself
the Republic of Vietnam.
After 1954, North Vietnamese communist leaders consolidated their power
and instituted a harsh agrarian reform and socialization program. In the
late 1950s, they reactivated the network of communist guerrillas that had
remained behind in the south. These forces--commonly known as the Viet
Cong--aided covertly by the north, started an armed campaign against officials
and villagers who refused to support the communist reunification cause.
American Assistance to the South
In December 1961, at the request of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh
Diem, President Kennedy sent U.S. military advisers to South Vietnam to
help the government there deal with the Viet Cong campaign. In the wake
of escalating political turmoil in the south after a 1963 generals' coup
against President Diem, the United States increased its military support
for South Vietnam. In March 1965, President Johnson sent the first U.S.
combat forces to Vietnam. The American military role peaked in 1969 with
an in-country force of 534,000. However, the Viet Cong's surprise Tet Offensive
in January 1968 deeply hurt both the Viet Cong infrastructure and American
and South Vietnamese morale. In January 1969, the United States, governments
of South and North Vietnam, and the Viet Cong met for the first plenary
session of peace talks in Paris, France. These talks, which began with
much hope, moved slowly. They finally concluded with the signing of a peace
agreement, the Paris Accords, on January 27, 1973. As a result, the south
was divided into a patchwork of zones controlled by the South Vietnamese
Government and the Viet Cong. The United States withdrew its forces, although
U.S. military advisers remained.
In early 1975, North Vietnamese regular military forces began a major
offensive in the south, inflicting great damage to the south's forces.
The communists took Saigon on April 30, 1975, and announced their intention
of reunifying the country. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (north) absorbed
the former Republic of Vietnam (south) to form the Socialist Republic of
Vietnam on July 2, 1976.
After reunification, the government confiscated privately owned land
and forced citizens into collectivized agricultural practices. Hundreds
of thousands of former South Vietnamese Government and military officials,
as well as intellectuals previously opposed to the communist cause, were
sent to re-education camps to study socialist doctrine.
While Vietnamese leaders thought that reunification of the country and
its socialist transformation would be condoned by the international community,
this did not happen. Besides international concern over Vietnam's internal
practices, the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1978 and its growing
tight alliance with the Soviet Union appeared to confirm suspicions that
Vietnam wanted to establish hegemony in Indochina.
Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia also heightened tensions that already
existed between Vietnam and China. Beijing, which had long backed the Khmer
Rouge regime in Cambodia, retaliated in early 1979 by initiating a border
war with Vietnam.
Vietnam's tensions with its neighbors and its stagnant economy contributed
to a massive exodus from Vietnam. Fearing persecution, many Chinese in
particular fled Vietnam by boat to nearby countries. Later, hundreds of
thousands of other Vietnamese nationals fled as well, seeking temporary
refuge in camps throughout Southeast Asia.
The continuing grave condition of the economy and the alienation from
the international community became focal points of party debate. In 1986,
at the Sixth Party Congress, there was an important easing of communist
agrarian and commercial policies.