Yemen was one of the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East.
Between the 12th century BC and the 6th century AD, it was part of the
Minaean, Sabaean, and Himyarite kingdoms, which controlled the lucrative
spice trade, and later came under Ethiopian and Persian rule. In the 7th
century, Islamic caliphs began to exert control over the area. After this
caliphate broke up, the former north Yemen came under control of Imams
of various dynasties usually of the Zaidi sect, who established a theocratic
political structure that survived until modern times. (Imam is a religious
term. The Shiites apply it to the prophet Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, his
sons Hasan and Hussein, and subsequent lineal descendants, whom they consider
to have been divinely ordained unclassified successors of the prophet.)
Egyptian Sunni caliphs occupied much of north Yemen throughout the 11th
century. By the 16th century and again in the 19th century, north Yemen
was part of the Ottoman empire, and in some periods its Imams exerted suzerainty
over south Yemen.
Former North Yemen
Ottoman government control was largely confined to cities with the Imam's
suzerainty over tribal areas formally recognized. Turkish forces withdrew
in 1918, and Imam Yahya strengthened his control over north Yemen. Yemen
became a member of the Arab league in 1945 and the United Nations in 1947.
Imam Yahya died during an unsuccessful coup attempt in 1948 and was
succeeded by his son Ahmad, who ruled until his death in September 1962.
Imam Ahmad's reign was marked by growing repression, renewed friction with
the United Kingdom over the British presence in the south, and growing
pressures to support the Arab nationalist objectives of Egyptian President
Gamal Abdul Nasser.
Shortly after assuming power in 1962, Ahmad's son, Badr, was deposed
by revolutionary forces which took control of Sanaa and created the Yemen
Arab Republic (YAR). Egypt assisted the YAR with troops and supplies to
combat forces loyal to the Imamate. Saudi Arabia and Jordan supported Badr's
royalist forces to oppose the newly formed republic. Conflict continued
periodically until 1967 when Egyptian troops were withdrawn. By 1968, following
a final royalist siege of Sanaa, most of the opposing leaders reached a
reconciliation; Saudi Arabia recognized the Republic in 1970.
Former South Yemen
British influence increased in the south and eastern portion of Yemen
after the British captured the port of Aden in 1839. It was ruled as part
of British India until 1937, when Aden was made a crown colony with the
remaining land designated as east Aden and west Aden protectorates. By
1965, most of the tribal states within the protectorates and the Aden colony
proper had joined to form the British-sponsored federation of south Arabia.
In 1965, two rival nationalist groups--the Front for the Liberation
of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) and the National Liberation Front (NLF)--turned
to terrorism in their struggle to control the country. In 1967, in the
face of uncontrollable violence, British troops began withdrawing, federation
rule collapsed, and NLF elements took control after eliminating their FLOSY
rivals. South Arabia, including Aden, was declared independent on November
30, 1967, and was renamed the People's Republic of South Yemen. In June
1969, a radical wing of the Marxist NLF gained power and changed the country's
name on December 1, 1970, to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
(PDRY). In the PDRY, all political parties were amalgamated into the Yemeni
Socialist Party (YSP), which became the only legal party. The PDRY established
close ties with the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and radical Palestinians.
Republic of Yemen
In 1972, the governments of the PDRY and the YAR declared that they
approved a future union. However, little progress was made toward unification,
and relations were often strained. In 1979, simmering tensions led to fighting,
which was only resolved after Arab League mediation. The goal of unity
was reaffirmed by the northern and southern heads of state during a summit
meeting in Kuwait in March 1979. However, that same year the PDRY began
sponsoring an insurgency against the YAR. In April 1980, PDRY President
Abdul Fattah Ismail resigned and went into exile. His successor, Ali Nasir
Muhammad, took a less interventionist stance toward both the YAR and neighboring
Oman. On January 13, 1986, a violent struggle began in Aden between Ali
Nasir Muhammad and the returned Abdul Fattah Ismail and their supporters.
Fighting lasted for more than a month and resulted in thousands of casualties,
Ali Nasir's ouster, and Ismail's death. Some 60,000 persons, including
Ali Nasir and his supporters, fled to the YAR.
In May 1988, the YAR and PDRY governments came to an understanding that
considerably reduced tensions including agreement to renew discussions
concerning unification, to establish a joint oil exploration area along
their undefined border, to demilitarize the border, and to allow Yemenis
unrestricted border passage on the basis of only a national identification
In November 1989, the leaders of the YAR (Ali Abdallah Saleh) and the
PDRY (Ali Salim Al-Bidh) agreed on a draft unity constitution originally
drawn up in 1981. The Republic of Yemen (ROY) was declared on May 22, 1990.
Ali Abdallah Saleh became President, and Ali Salim Al-Bidh became Vice
A 30-month transitional period for completing the unification of the
two political and economic systems was set. A presidential council was
jointly elected by the 26-member YAR advisory council and the 17-member
PDRY presidium. The presidential council appointed a Prime Minister, who
formed a Cabinet. There was also a 301-seat provisional unified Parliament,
consisting of 159 members from the north, 111 members from the south, and
31 independent members appointed by the chairman of the council.
A unity constitution was agreed upon in May 1990 and ratified by the
populace in May 1991. It affirmed Yemen's commitment to free elections,
a multiparty political system, the right to own private property, equality
under the law, and respect of basic human rights. Parliamentary elections
were held on April 27, 1993. International groups assisted in the organization
of the elections and observed actual balloting. The resulting Parliament
included 143 GPC, 69 YSP, 63 Islaah (Yemeni grouping for reform, a party
composed of various tribal and religious groups), 6 Baathis, 3 Nasserists,
2 Al Haq, and 15 independents. The head of Islaah, Paramount Hashid Sheik
Abdallah Bin Husayn Al-Ahmar, is the speaker of Parliament.
Islaah was invited into the ruling coalition, and the presidential council
was altered to include one Islaah member. Conflicts within the coalition
resulted in the self-imposed exile of Vice President Ali Salim Al-Bidh
to Aden beginning in August 1993 and a deterioration in the general security
situation as political rivals settled scores and tribal elements took advantage
of the unsettled situation.
Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas (former southern Prime Minister) continued
to serve as the ROY Prime Minister, but his government was ineffective
due to political infighting. Continuous negotiations between northern and
southern leaders resulted in the signing of the document of pledge and
accord in Amman, Jordan on February 20, 1994. Despite this, clashes intensified
until civil war broke out in early May 1994.
Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in
the southern part of the country despite air and missile attacks against
cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support
from neighboring states and received billions of dollars of equipment and
financial assistance. The United States strongly supported Yemeni unity,
but repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating
table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy, were unsuccessful
to effect a cease-fire.
Southern leaders declared secession and the establishment of the Democratic
Republic of Yemen (DRY) on May 21, 1994, but the DRY was not recognized
by the international community. Ali Nasir Muhammad supporters greatly assisted
military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on
July 7, 1994. Other resistance quickly collapsed and thousands of southern
leaders and military went into exile.
Early during the fighting, President Ali Abdallah Saleh announced a
general amnesty which applied to everyone except a list of 16 persons.
Most southerners returned to Yemen after a short exile.
An armed opposition was announced from Saudi Arabia, but no significant
incidents within Yemen materialized. The government prepared legal cases
against four southern leaders--Ali Salim Al- Bidh, HaydarAbu Bakr Al-Attas,
Abd Al-Rahman Ali Al-Jifri, and Salih MunassarAl-Siyali--for misappropriation
of official funds. Others on the list of 16 were told informally they could
return to take advantage of the amnesty, but most remained outside Yemen.
Although many of Ali Nasir Muhammad's followers were appointed to senior
governmental positions (including Vice President, Chief of Staff, and Governor
of Aden), Ali Nasir Muhammad himself remained abroad in Syria.
In the aftermath of the civil war, YSP leaders within Yemen reorganized
the party and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, the party
remained disheartened and without its former influence. Islaah held a party
convention in September 1994. The GPC did the same in June 1995.
In 1994, amendments to the unity constitution eliminated the presidential
council. President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament on October
1, 1994 to a 5-year term. The constitution provides that henceforth the
President will be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates
selected by the legislature. Yemen held its first direct presidential elections
in September 1999, electing President Ali Abdallah Saleh to a 5-year term
in what were generally considered free and fair elections. Yemen held its
second multiparty parliamentary elections in April 1997. In April 2003,
the third multiparty parliamentary elections were held with improvements
in voter registration for both men and women and in a generally free and
fair atmosphere. Two women were elected. Constitutional amendments adopted
in the summer of 2000 extended the presidential term by 2 years, thus moving
the next presidential elections to 2006. The amendments also extended the
parliamentary term of office to a 6-year term, thus moving elections for
these seats to 2003. On February 20, 2001, a new constitutional amendment
created a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats;
members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives (301
seats; members elected by popular vote).